We all think and learn in different ways – and every kind of mind brings something unique to the table. When it comes to employment opportunities for neurominorities, unfortunately the landscape tends to be filled with challenges, rather than opportunities.
The tech industry is only just starting to realise the benefits of embracing a neurodiverse workforce, and this lack of foresight is surprising. From Alan Turing to Albert Einstein and Isaac Newton, some of history’s most brilliant brains are rumoured to have been Autistic. More recently, Elon Musk also opened up about having Asperger’s syndrome. And, of course, Autism and Asperger’s are just two examples of neurodivergent conditions.
The term ‘neurodiversity’ was coined in the late 1990s by Australian sociologist and author Judy Singer, an Autistic woman herself. It refers to the different ways the brain can work and interpret information. According to Singer, it embraces “the timeless and incontrovertible reality that every single living being is unique, and that no two human minds (actually mind-body complexes) are the same.”
Everyone has different interests and motivations. Some people are naturally better at some things and struggle with others, within a specific range. A neurodivergent brain typically has a ‘spiky’ cognitive profile, meaning there can be significant variations between these areas of strengths and weaknesses. A neurotypical brain has a much flatter cognitive profile in comparison.
Around one in eight people are considered neurodivergent but many are not aware of this. The terms Autism and neurodiverse/neurodivergent are sometimes used interchangeably; however, neurodiversity covers a range of conditions, some of which are well known and others less so. These can be broken down into four categories:
And it is extremely common for these conditions to co-occur. We know from research conducted by neurodiversity specialists, Genius Within CIC, which draws on the research of Dr Nancy Doyle, building from the original work of Mary Colley, that overlapping conditions also provide the background for shared strengths, outlining the different strengths each cognitive condition can bring. As Dr Doyle points out: “The clear result of this difference is that we have a group of complementary specialists scattered among a population of generalists. Anyone wanting to hire a well-balanced team would of course find this very useful.”
Steven Silberman, author of the acclaimed and ground-breaking book NeuroTribes, in his article for Tech publication Wired, once called Autism "the geek syndrome". Silberman recognised this is just one aspect in the evolution of understanding Autism as well as the wider spectrum of Neurodiversity.
In a 2016 study, The National Institute of Economic and Social Research explained that there is a “propensity for neurodivergent individuals to be stereotyped according to the more well-known characteristics of their condition.”
Given that conditions can present differently depending on the individual, and they rarely exist in isolation, these assumptions are incredibly damaging. They don’t allow the whole person to be seen, dismissing their wealth of experience and skills.
It is important to understand the challenges that neurominorities can face; however, when individuals are in the right environment which allows them to make use of their strengths, neurodiversity can be a competitive advantage. Climate change activist Greta Thunberg, for example, famously refers to her Autism diagnosis as a “superpower”.
As Dr Nancy Doyle, CEO of Genius Within states in a Forbes article on neurodiversity: “Assuming competence and focusing in on what we can do rather than what we can’t creates the perfect jumping off point around which a framework of support can be built. Most disabled and neurodivergent people have good experience of overcoming difficulties and challenging themselves so we do not need or want to be protected. We do however like to know that if we have different processes, learning styles, social and environmental needs that our employer will understand and be inclusive.”
An inclusive workforce celebrates the differences between employees. It recognises the benefit of balanced teams, including a blend of ‘specialist’ and ‘generalist’ thinkers.
For example, in 2017 test specialist Dyllan Rafail was one of the first neurodivergent employees brought into IBM’s Ignite Quality and Test programme, bringing a range of special qualities to his job and team. Paul Austin, Senior Software Development Manager, and Andrew Williams, AP Business Development Executive, spearheaded the initiative with support from the Specialisterne Foundation, which specialises in bringing neurodiverse candidates to companies worldwide. It was one of several pilots launched across IBM globally to pave the way for a more inclusive workplace.
“Dyllan has turned out to be an exceptional guy,” according to Austin. “Many times, individuals like Dyllan have a number of skills and traits that compensate for the other things that they lack. One of those traits is perseverance, another is a high tolerance for repetitive tasks, as well as an intense ability to focus. They happen to be well-matched for testing and pattern-matching. A neurodivergent person will often be better than their neurotypical peers at finding anomalies in how a program runs.”
While it’s important to understand that neurodivergent people have different characteristics and strengths, research reveals that there is evidence of specific strengths and skills associated with neurodiverse conditions.
Within the world of tech, focus, creativity and analytical talents could help leaders address a range of existing skills gaps and widen their talent pool:
Skills Development Scotland also identified a range of positive traits linked to neurodiverse conditions that can benefit any business looking to recruit tech talent. These include:
While addressing the tech skills gaps is important, a neurodiverse workforce can also drive:
The tech industry is now recognising the benefits of having a diverse workforce and the unique range of skillsets and experience it offers. It is working hard to encourage diversity in any form, and things are starting to change. But change – across any demographic – is a long game.
As Dr Doyle comments: “Allowing for difference means showing respect and understanding that different ways of doing things aren’t lesser.”
To realise the benefits and opportunities of embracing neurodiversity, awareness is key. Today’s tech houses must recognise that neurodiversity includes a wide range of conditions, and that every individual is, well, an individual.
Follow this link as James Milligan, Global Head of Hays Tecnology, explains how tech companies can adjust their recruitment processes to hire a neurodiverse workforce.
Commercial Director of Genius Within CIC
As one of three female Directors of Awarding-winning social enterprise Genius Within, Jacqui’s role is to shape and grow Genius Within’s inclusion work within the field of Neurodiversity. GW’s work is strongly rooted in research, building consensus, and expanding understanding in the field of Neurodiversity at Work.